Liberia has around 4.2 million hectares of forested land, which constitutes 43.4% of the total land area. Almost 100% of the total area is made of primary (175'000 ha) or otherwise naturally regenerated forest, the rest being only around 8'000 ha of planted forest. Liberian forests represent over half of the remaining rainforests in West Africa, and they are dominated by moist evergreen forests and semi-deciduous forests (predominantly in North Liberia). Source: Global Forest Resources Assessment, FAO 2015. According to the same source, the current deforestation rate is set at 30'000 ha / year, with conversion for agriculture and mining being the main drivers. However, uncontrolled logging is a significant cause of forest degradation.
The new ‘Land Rights Act’ (09/2018) details the four categories of land ownership now recognized and protected in Liberia and the associated use rights: Public Land, Customary Land, Government Land and Private Land. It also identifies Protected Land as common to all categories of land rights. Any land not belonging to any of the other three categories is now presumed to be customary land by default. All forest resources are however owned by the state, except for those that are located in communal forests and those that have been developed on private or deeded lands through artificial regeneration. Existing forest concessions located on newly recognized customary land will remain valid, but no more new large concessions (FMCs) will likely be allocated. The communities will own the land, not the forest resource, but they will now be part of any forest logging contract: the community may lease customary land to a concessionaire for up to 50 years.
According to Fauna & Flora of Liberia, to date (September 2018) five protected areas have been gazetted in Liberia under the Protected Forest Area Network Act (2003): Sapo National Park, East Nimba Nature Reserve, Lake Piso Multiple Use Reserve, Gola National Forest Park, and Grebo-Krahn National Park, covering a total area of 454'800 ha, or 4.1 % of the country’s area. Several others are on the verge of being protected, and attempts are being made to connect existing protected areas using existing forests between them. Liberia also currently has five ‘Wetlands of International Importance’ designated under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Mount Nimba was recently designated an ‘Alliance for Zero Extinction’ Site, and the ‘Upper Guinea Rivers and Streams’ WWF Global 200 site that straddles the border of Liberia is recognized as a critical region for freshwater conservation. A proposed protected area, Wonegezi Forest, is a pilot site for the UN Reduced Emissions caused by Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) program in Liberia. Liberia has ratified the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).
Production and export
According to ITTO (2017) the Liberian industry produced about about 500 thousand m3 of logs in 2015. The majority of the timber production is used in the domestic market. The civil war (1989 – 2003) destroyed the forestry industry and rural infrastructure, and consequently round logs currently account for the bulk of the export volume. The export value of primary timber products accounted for around 44.1 million US dollars in 2015.
Common commercially harvested timber species include Azobé (Lophira alata), Niangon (Heritiera utilis), Bossé (Guarea cedrata), Iroko (Milicia excelsa), Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon) and Dabema (Piptadeniastrum africanum). A total of 240 timber species have been identified, of which about 60 species have been exploited and exported (Source: FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015-Liberia). The official Species List entered in the SGS LiberFor system in 2011 contains 95 species. The vast majority of the wood exports goes to China, with the remainder mainly going to other Asian countries and to Europe.
Timber is mostly exported via the main ports of the country: the Freeport of Monrovia and the ports of Buchanan, Greenville and Harper (near Pedebo, a crossing point to Côte d’Ivoire). Especially Harper and Greenville are known as main outlets for the timber industry. Only containerized logs and processed-wood products can be shipped out of Monrovia, while the three other ports accept both logs (in bulk) and containerized logs or processed products. Only self-loading ships operate in Liberia; ships cannot berth at Harper, hence logs/processed products must be transferred to the ships by barge or rafts of floating logs.
Sources of information
- FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015.
- FAO Yearbook of forest products (2016)
- FAOSTAT Data (2017)
- Fauna & Flora of Liberia
- Fordaq - timber trade network
- Forest Legality Alliance risk tool - Liberia
- ITC (International Trade Centre) calculations based on UN Comtrade statistics
- ITTO (2011) Status of tropical forest management 2011 - Liberia
- ITTO (2017) Biennial review and assessment of the world timber situation
- Liberia and the European Union. Progress Report - Moving Towards VPA Implementation 2011 - 2012 (EU)
- Liberia Forest Atlas - Interactive map
- National Port Authority of Liberia
- SGS LiberFor, Species List (2011)
- World Port Source - Map of ports in Liberia.
The Forestry Development Authority (FDA) established in 1976 as a state corporation is the national authority responsible for the sustainable management and conservation of Liberia’s forest resources, which includes management of the forest policy, the forest legislative framework and the enforcement of forest laws. This mandate was further strengthened through the National Resource Law of 1979. FDA governance relies on a Managing Director and a Board of Directors appointed by the Liberia’s President. Main FDA departments: Commercial, Community, Conservation, Legality Verification, and R&D Departments. Main FDA divisions: Administration & Finance, Law Enforcement, and Public Affairs Divisions. FDA units include the REDD+ implementing and Strategic Planning Units.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible to supervise, monitor and coordinate all activities that impact the environment (soils, water, biodiversity, land uses), also overseeing conservation areas, and coordinating e.g. wildlife issues, mainly through an Environmental & Social Impact Assessment (ESIA). It has an MoU signed with the FDA (2007).
Other ministries involved mostly include: Finance & Development Planning (MFDP) and its Liberia Revenue Authority (LRA) that covers tax and Customs, Agriculture (MoA), Commerce and Industry (MoCI), Justice (MoJ), and Labour (MoL).
The framework for assessing legality of forestry operations, timber processing and trade in Liberia that has been retained as part of the VPA between Liberia and the EU.
The 2006 National Forestry Reform Law (NFRL 2006) is the current legal instrument that guides the management of forest resources in Liberia. It is based on the “3Cs” approach: Commercial, Community and Conservation forestry.
Other important laws and regulations include:
- FDA Ten Core Regulations 101-07 to 110-07 (2007);
- Guidelines for Forest Management Planning in Liberia’ (2009)
- Community Rights Law (CRL) (2009);
- LVD Manual of Procedures (2016);
- FDA Code of Forest Harvesting Practices (CFHP) (amended 2017)
Other regulations that are in the process of being developed or amended and approved (and finally added to the Legality matrix) include:
- Third Party Access to Forest Resource License Areas;
- Abandoned Logs, Timber and Timber Products;
- Confiscated Logs, Timber and Timber Products;
- Import Logs, Timber and Timber Products;
- Transit Logs, Timber and Timber Products;
- Guidelines for Plantation Forests;
- Community Rights Regulations;
- Chainsaw Milling Regulation, and Charcoal Regulation;
- Regulations on Timber Processing, Penalties, EIA, Fiscal Policy and Bid Premium Payments, etc.
The NFRL 2006 provides for the issuance of five types of licenses by the FDA to carry out activities over forested land, as follows:
- Forest Management Contract (FMC): a license issued for forest exploitation over land areas between 50.000 and 400.000 ha that excludes private land, generally for a period of 25 years;
- Timber Sales Contract (TSC): license issued over a land area of not more than 5’000 ha that excludes private land, for a period of 3 years;
- Forest Use Permit (FUP): a license issued for small scale forest exploitation (and limited to local use), research, NTFP activities or other special uses on an area of less than 1’000 ha, and without a concession process for a value of less than 10,000 USD;
- Private Use Permit (PUP): a license that was issued to private land owners (individual, group, community) to extract wood to enter into contracts directly with logging companies. PUPs covered up to approximately 30% of Liberia’s forests between 2011 and 2012. Because of massive mismanagement of the PUPs, however, a moratorium was set out on the issuance of PUPs (01/2013) and all PUPs have now been cancelled.
- Community Forest Management Agreement (CFMA): license issued to communities for the purpose of community-based forest management over an area smaller than 50.000 ha, to enter into small-scale commercial contracts for harvesting timber and non-timber forest products. However, the Community Rights Law (CRL) allows for CFMAs to exceed 50.000 ha, in which case the contracting of a logging company must follow a public bidding process and must be signed by the President and ratified by the Parliament, as is the case for FMCs.
Contract holders need to comply with all major requirements under the Public Procurement and Concession Act (PPCA) in order to obtain the contract, including tax clearance, an annual business registration certificate, and a Prequalification certificate. The FMC also includes: socio-economic survey, forest inventory and environmental survey. FMCs and TSCs can be obtained via tender. The contract to use or harvest forest resources is then signed between the contract holder and the FDA. Public information on forest contracts can be found on LEITI’s website.
Pre-felling requirements listed by FDA for export permit include:
a) Boundary line demarcation
b) Social agreement
c) Environmental and social impact assessment
d) Performance bond
e) Strategic forest management plan (SFMP)
f) Five years forest management plan (5YFMP), which is the compartment plan
g) Annual operation plan (AOP)
h) Annual coupe demarcation
i) Tax clearance; and proof of payment of Area fee and Annual Administration Fee
The contract holder must uniquely number and record each tree on the Stock survey form (SSF) and Block map. These are verified by the Legality Verification Department (LVD) of the FDA and validated by SGS. Until October 2018 the LVD was operated and its capacity and CoC Information System (COCIS, known as LiberTrace) developed and eventually transferred by SGS (Société Générale de Surveillance SA); during an extension period, SGS Liberia will provide further capacity building and keep a monitoring and supervision role.
Contract holders are only allowed to fell trees when they are in the possession of a valid Annual Harvesting Certificate (AHC). This certificate can only be obtained after the contract holder has, among others, obtained an approved Annual Operation Plan (AOP), and, for FMCs, an approved Management Plan covering the area to be harvested, and a signed Social Agreement. The AOP shall specify the volume and species of the annual coupe, or the annual blocks of harvest in case of FMCs.
Taxes and fees include, where relevant and applicable:
- Auction Fee, Bid premium, Land Rental Bid Fee, Sawmill Permit Fees, Timber Export License Fees, Chainsaw Lumber Fees
- Area Fee, Chain of Custody Registration Fee, Annual Contract Administration Fee, Annual Coupe Inspection Fee, Barcode Issuance Fee, Block Inspection Fees, Stumpage Fee, Forest Product Fee
- Waybill Fees, Log Export Fees
Taxes and fees in the last two groups are invoiced by the LVD using LiberTrace. An export permit can only be issued when all taxes and fees relating to the forest products subject to the permit have been paid. The Tax Clearance Certificate (TCC) issued by the Liberian Revenue Authority certifies that the timber operator has complied with all known tax requirements with the government (or has reached an agreement to defer/waive tax obligations). It is presented to qualify an operator for signing forest contracts, for the AHC, and for an Export permit.
Felling requirements listed by FDA for export permit include:
a) Tax clearance; barcode issuance fee, block inspection fee
b) Annual harvesting certificate
c) Barcode Issuance
d) Verification of SSF/TDF
Once the AHC has been issued, and the Annual Coupe validated by LVD/SGS, the contract holder is allocated barcoded log tags and is permitted to commence harvesting at the locations indicated on the Block map. The log tags are affixed to the butt end of the log and another to the stump. Details of the harvested tree are recorded on the felled Tree Data Form (TDF), and include species, dimensions and log ID. TDFs are completed prior to cutting into initial long "mother" logs. Once trees have been felled, labelled, measured and TDFs have been filled in at the stump, the operator can extract the long logs to the log landing. After cross cutting, each crosscut log receives a new ID tag, so that all logs are traceable back to the stump or location where the tree grew. The logs are recorded on a Log Data Form (LDF) a.k.a. Cross-cut Form. The logs are prepared for transport with the help of Waybills. Special felling and Special entry forms are used under particular circumstances. Data from all these forms submitted by the Operator is uploaded in Libertrace (if Inventory validated by LVD).
FMC and TSC holding companies sign social agreements (SAs) with affected communities within 3.0 km following advanced notice. An SA attested to by the FDA is a pre-felling requirement and a condition for an AHC and an Export permit. A SA includes: code of conduct for the parties; dispute resolution mechanism; financial benefits payable to the community through quarterly payments to an escrow account. As part of implementing these SAs, a National Benefit Sharing Trust mechanism has been established to oversee the disbursements (cubic meter fee) to forest-affected communities and community projects. Community Forest Management Agreements (CFMAs) allow communities to enter into contracts with logging companies for the purpose of community-based forest management. The new ‘Land Rights Act’ (09/2018) now recognizes customary land rights and includes important provisions on e.g. Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC). A regulation on ‘Third Party Access to Forest Resource License Areas’ is currently under development.
It is generally recognized that the law reform and the EU-Liberia FLEGT VPA negotiation and implementation processes have been exemplary inclusive and participatory processes so far for the key stakeholder groups in Liberia.
The COC System (COCS) of the LVD (which includes COCIS management, CoC inspections and legality audits) is used to facilitate the verification of the three pillars for Export permit request approval: Traceability, Legality and Fiscality, throughout the supply chain. The verification system is described in the LVD Manual of Procedures (2016) that contains the Liberia COCS Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).
Post-felling requirements listed by FDA for export permit include:
a) Stump verification
b) LDF (Log Data Form)
c) Transportation and Waybill checks
d) EPR/LDF submission
e) Log yard verification
f) Shipment specification (SPEC)
g) Shipment verification
h) Certificate of origin
i) Verification of taxes/fees paid
Waybill booklets having a unique barcode for identification are issued to concession holders against a fee. For transport, a waybill form is completed, including barcode, species and dimensions, as well as official barcoded stickers and references to the bar-coded tag numbers of the wood products of the load. These waybills can be checked in the forest concessions while loading, at checkpoints during transportation and at the log yard while unloading, by FDA and the LVD. Relevant SOP: 14.
Facilities mechanically processing the wood (sawmills) need to be in the possession of an annual sawmill permit. The sawmill receiving the logs keeps records of all wood raw materials entering the site (Sawmill input form), as well as records of stock, processing and exit of processed products (Sawmill output form). Processed products are labelled with official barcoded PVC labels. The details of inputs and outputs of the processing facility are uploaded in the COCIS. Relevant SOP: 20.
The COCIS is also used for the recording of exports of logs, timber and other wood products. Exporters of these products shall be in the possession of an Annual export registration in the first place. Upon successful LDF verification through log inspection in the log yard and against TDF & SSF before exportation, the logs can be submitted for issuance of an Export Permit, accompanied by an Export shipment specification (SPEC) listing the products, and a Certificate of Origin to the Operator. Export permits (EPs) are issued to exports that comply with the official “Requirements for Export Permit under Current regime” listed by the FDA, representing a set of minimum requirements for “legal exports” from Liberia that needs to be compared to EUTR requirements and is an interim measure prior to full implementation of FLEGT Licenses. The actual Shipment verification is done through an inspection of the logs while loading onto the ship. Relevant SOPs: 22, 23, and 26. The operator must also have provided a Tax Clearance Certificate as proof of payment of export fees and other taxes.
A Certificate of origin (COO) is issued for certain export markets following the loading inspection, subject to receipt by LVD of the Bill of Lading (B/L) and a Short-shipped report. Relevant SOP: 25.
The below listed key documents are based on the applicable legislation and are considered to play a key role in demonstrating legal origin. The information related to compliance with timber legality can be extracted from a subset of documents for which other documents are prerequisites.
Processing and Trade
Bans and quota
There are no logging or export bans or quotas in place in Liberia.
Cites and protected species
CITES Notification No. 2018/012 maintains a recommendation to suspend commercial trade with Liberia in specimens of CITES-listed species until further notice for failure by Liberia to adopt appropriate legislative measures to implement the Convention.
There are no CITES-listed tree species in Appendix I and Appendix III for Liberia.
The following flora species from Liberia are listed on CITES Appendix II, though not necessarily tree species (196 species in total):
- Cyathea camerooniana (CYATHEACEAE)
- Pterocarpus erinaceus (LEGUMINOSAE), a.k.a. African rosewood, or kosso
- Dalbergia spp. (LEGUMINOSAE)
- Euphorbia prostrata (EUPHORBIACEAE)
- A large number of species belonging to the ORCHIDACEAE family.
(Sources: CITES-listed species; Species+; KEW, Cites and Timber; NEPCon, A Practical Guide to CITES)
National action on timber legality
During Liberia’s prolonged civil war (1989-2003), timber revenues were misappropriated and used to sustain the conflict. In 2003 the United Nations (UN) Security Council imposed sanctions (embargo) on all imports of timber from Liberia. Since then, Liberia has made significant efforts to reform the forest sector including completing a comprehensive review of the regulatory framework, developing a national timber traceability system (SGS LiberFor, now LiberTrace) to track timber production and revenue payments, and reforming the FDA. In 2006, the UN Security Council lifted the sanctions to recognise Liberia’s progress and to open the way for Liberia to rebuild its forest sector.
In support of the forest reform process, Liberia and the EU entered into negotiations for a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) under the EU FLEGT Action Plan in March 2009. The VPA was signed in July 2011, and ratified in December 2013. In 2013, SGS was hired to further develop the CoC system and the rest of the Timber Legality Assurance System (TLAS) specified in the VPA. As part of the LAS, the COCS ensures traceability from the standing tree to the point of export and provides evidence to support the issuance of Export permits for timber coming from FMCs, TSCs and CFMAs.
As of October 2018 the VPA is still in its implementation phase. In March 2017, an Independent auditor was appointed for 3 years to assess the effectiveness of the TLAS being implemented in Liberia. Until the VPA is declared operational and Liberia can start issuing FLEGT Licenses, the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) requirements prevail for wood imports from Liberia into the EU markets.
Third party certification
Liberia currently has no independently issued forest management or legality of timber certificates issued to forest or timber operators.
Sources of information
- BVRio (2017) Practical guide to conducting due diligence of tropical timber products: Liberia
- CITES - CITES-listed species
- Forest Development Authority – Ten Core Regulations
- FDA, Requirements for Export Permit under Current regime
- Forest Legality Alliance Risk tool - Liberia
- Forest Legality Initiative, Logging and Export Bans
- KEW (2016) Cites and Timber - A guide to CITES-listed tree species
- LEITI’s website, where copies of all forest contracts can be found
- Liberia Forestry Development Authority (FDA) website
- Liberia – EU (2011) EU-Liberia VPA
- Liberia and the European Union. Joint Annual Report 2014. Implementing the Liberia-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement
- Liberia’s Community Rights Law with respect to Forest Lands (2009)
- Liberia’s National Forestry Reform Law of 2006
- NEPCon (2018) A Practical Guide to CITES
- NEPCon (2018) Liberia Timber Risk Profile
- WWF (2012) A guide for the timber exporter and importer from Ghana and Liberia
Old Budget Bureau Building, behind the Executive Mansion
Margibi County / RIA Highway
PO Box 5678
Source: Transparancy International