Gateway to international timbertrade


Forest resources

Liberia has around 4.2 million hectares of forested land, which constitutes 43.4% of the total land area. Almost 100% of the total area is made of primary (175’000 ha) or otherwise naturally regenerated (therefore secondary) forest (the vast majority), the rest being only around 8’000 ha of planted forest. Liberian forests represent over half of the remaining rainforests in West Africa, and they are dominated by moist evergreen forests and semi-deciduous forests (predominantly in North Liberia). Source: Global Forest Resources Assessment, FAO 2015. According to the same source, the current deforestation rate is of 30’000 ha / year, with conversion for agriculture and mining being the main drivers. However, uncontrolled logging is a significant cause of forest degradation.

The new ‘Land Rights Act’ (09/2018) details the four categories of land ownership now recognized and protected in Liberia and the associated use rights: Public Land, Customary Land, Government Land and Private Land. It also identifies Protected Land as common to all categories of land rights. Any land not belonging to any of the other three categories is now presumed to be customary land by default. All forest resources are however owned by the state, except for those that are located in communal forests and those that have been developed on private or deeded lands through artificial regeneration. Existing forest concessions located on newly recognized customary land will remain valid, but no more large concessions (FMCs) will likely be newly allocated. The communities will own the land, not the forest resource, but they will now be part of any forest logging contract: the community may lease customary land to a concessionaire for up to 50 years.

The Protected Forest Area Network Act (2003) aims at least 30% of the existing forest area of Liberia, representing about 1.5 million hectares. According to Fauna & Flora of Liberia and other sources, Liberia currently has five main protected forest areas: the Sapo National Forest (Sinoe County), the East Nimba Nature Reserve (Nimba County), the Lake Piso Multiple Use Reserve, the Gola National Forest Park (Gbarpolu County), and the Grebo-Krahn National Park (River Gee County/Sinoe), covering a total area of 454,800 ha, or 4.1 % of the country’s area. These conserved forests have been hampered mainly by hunters, loggers and miners as reports have suggested over time. Several other areas are on the verge of being protected, and attempts are being made to connect existing protected areas using existing forests between them. Liberia also currently has five ‘Wetlands of International Importance’ designated under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Mount Nimba was recently designated an ‘Alliance for Zero Extinction’ Site, and the ‘Upper Guinea Rivers and Streams’ WWF Global 200 site that straddles the border of Liberia is recognized as a critical region for freshwater conservation. A proposed protected area and the closest to gazettement, Wonegezi Forest, is a pilot site for the REDD+ program in Liberia. The number of proposed areas FOR protection continues to increase with the discovery of the presence of endangered species and of diminishing ecosystems. Liberia has ratified the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).

Production and export

According to ITTO (Biennial review), the Liberian industry produced about 550’000m3 of industrial round wood in 2018. Yet, the majority of the wood production, including fire wood and wood for construction, is used in the domestic market and is largely unregistered. The civil war (1989–2003) destroyed the forest industry and rural infrastructure, and consequently round logs currently account for the bulk of the export volume. Round log exports in 2018: 187’000m3; sawnwood exports: 185m3 in 2018, 1’298m3 in 2019 (Source: FDA/LVD). The export value of primary timber products accounted for around 52.5 million US dollars in 2018. The vast majority of wood exports goes to China, with the remainder mainly going to other Asian countries (Bangladesh, Korea, India, Nepal, Singapore, Turkey, Vietnam) and to Europe (Belgium, France, Greece, Norway, Poland).

Common commercially harvested timber species include Azobé (Lophira alata), Niangon (Heritiera utilis), Bossé (Guarea cedrata), Iroko (Milicia excelsa), Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon) and Dabema (Piptadeniastrum africanum). A total of 240 timber species have been identified, of which about 60 species have been exploited and exported (Source: FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015-Liberia). The SGS/FDA LiberTrace system contains an official Species List of 95 species.

Timber is mostly exported via the main ports of the country: the Freeport of Monrovia and the ports of Buchanan, Greenville and Harper (near Pedebo, a crossing point to Côte d’Ivoire). Especially Harper and Greenville are known as main outlets for the timber industry. Only containerized logs and processed-wood products can be shipped out of Monrovia, while the three other ports accept both logs (in bulk) and containerized logs or products. Containerization is becoming a most popular export method out of Liberia. Only self-loading ships operate in Liberia; ships cannot berth at Harper, hence logs/ timber products must be transferred to the ships by barge or rafts of floating logs.

Sources of information

Legality framework

Forest governance

The Forestry Development Authority (FDA) established in 1976 as a state corporation is the national authority responsible for the sustainable management and conservation of Liberia’s forest resources, which includes management of the forest policy, the forest legislative framework and the enforcement of forest laws. This mandate was further strengthened through the National Resource Law of 1979. FDA governance relies on a Managing Director and a Board of Directors appointed by the Liberia’s President. Main FDA departments: Commercial, Community, Conservation, Legality Verification, and R&D Departments. Main FDA divisions: Administration & Finance, Law Enforcement, and Public Affairs Divisions. FDA units include the REDD+ implementing and Strategic Planning Units.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible to supervise, monitor and coordinate all activities that impact the environment (soils, water, biodiversity, land uses), also overseeing conservation areas, and coordinating e.g. wildlife issues, mainly through an Environmental & Social Impact Assessment (ESIA). It has an MoU signed with the FDA (2007).

Other ministries involved mostly include: Finance & Development Planning (MFDP) and its Liberia Revenue Authority (LRA) that covers Tax and Customs, Agriculture (MoA), Commerce and Industry (MoCI), Justice (MoJ), and Labour (MoL).

The framework for assessing legality of forestry operations, timber processing and trade in Liberia that has been retained as part of the VPA between Liberia and the EU is the Legality matrix. The current version (2011) is made up of 11 Principles, 42 Indicators and 132 Verifiers.

The 2006 National Forestry Reform Law (NFRL 2006) is the current legal instrument that guides the management of forest resources in Liberia. It is based on the “3Cs” approach: Commercial, Community and Conservation forestry.

Other important laws and regulations include:

  • FDA Ten Core Regulations 101-07 to 110-07 (2007)
  • Guidelines for Forest Management Planning in Liberia’ (2009)
  • Community Rights Law (CRL) (2009)
  • LVD Manual of Procedures (2016)
  • Code of Forest Harvesting Practices (CFHP) (amended in 2017)
  • Community Rights Regulations (amended in 2017)
  • Abandoned Logs, Timber and Timber Products (2017)
  • Third Party Access to Forest Resource License Areas (2017)
  • Confiscated Logs, Timber and Timber Products (2017)
  • Sustainable Wood-based Biomass Energy Production and Marketing in Liberia (2017)

Other regulations and guidelines that are in the process of being developed or amended and approved (and eventually added to a revised Legality matrix) include:

  • Import Logs, Timber and Timber Products
  • Transit Logs, Timber and Timber Products
  • Guidelines for Plantation Forests
  • Community Rights Regulations
  • Chainsaw Milling Regulation, and Charcoal Regulation
  • Regulations on Timber Processing, Penalties, Access to Timber Resource Wastes/Residues, EIA, Fiscal Policy and Bid Premium Payments, Complaints, etc.


Legal rights to harvest

The NFRL 2006 provides for the issuance of five types of licenses by the FDA to carry out activities over forested land, as follows:

  • Forest Management Contract (FMC): a license issued for forest exploitation over land areas between 50’000 and 400’000 ha that excludes private land, generally for a period of 25 years;
  • Timber Sales Contract (TSC): license issued over a land area of not more than 5’000 ha that excludes private land, for a (renewable) period of 3 years;
  • Forest Use Permit (FUP): a license issued for small scale forest exploitation (and limited to local use), research, NTFP activities or other special uses on an area of less than 1’000 ha, and without a concession process for a value of less than 10’000 USD;
  • Private Use Permit (PUP): a license that is issued to private land owners (individual, group, community) to extract wood to enter into contracts directly with logging companies. PUPs covered up to approximately 30% of Liberia’s forests between 2011 and 2012. Because of massive mismanagement of the PUPs, however, a (temporary) presidential moratorium was declared on the issuance of PUPs (01/2013) and all existing PUPs were cancelled. Nothing would in fact prevent new PUPs to be lawfully issued.
  • Community Forest Management Agreement (CFMA): license issued to communities for the purpose of community-based forest management over an area smaller than 50’000 ha, to enter into small-scale commercial contracts for harvesting timber and non-timber forest products. However, the Community Rights Law (CRL) allows for CFMAs to exceed 50’000 ha, in which case the contracting of a logging company must follow a public bidding process and must be signed by the President and ratified by the Parliament, as is the case for FMCs.

Contract holders need to comply with all major requirements under the Public Procurement and Concession Act (PPCA) in order to obtain the contract, including tax clearance, an annual business registration certificate, and a prequalification certificate. The FMC also includes: socio-economic survey, forest inventory and environmental survey. FMCs and TSCs can be obtained via tender. The contract to use or harvest forest resources is then signed between the contract holder and the FDA. Public information on forest contracts can be found on LEITI’s website.

Pre-felling requirements listed by the FDA for export permit include:

a) Boundary line demarcation
b) Social agreement
c) Environmental and social impact assessment
d) Performance bond
e) Strategic forest management plan (SFMP)
f) Five years forest management plan (5YFMP), which is the compartment plan
g) Annual operation plan (AOP)
h) Annual coupe demarcation 
i) Tax clearance; and proof of payment of Area fee and Annual Administration Fee.

The contract holder must uniquely number, label (tree ID tag) and record all trees above 50 cm DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) on a Stock Survey Form (SSF) and a Block map. These are verified by the Legality Verification Department (LVD) of the FDA when new blocks are submitted for inspection. All trees above Diameter Cut Limits (DCLs) in harvestable species and outside exclusion areas (like streams and slopes, as defined by the CFHP) will be approved for felling by the FDA. The logging company may decide which trees it eventually wants to fell for its market.

Until October 2018 the LVD was operated and its capacity and (Chain of Custody) CoC Information System (COCIS, known as LiberTrace) developed, to be eventually transferred to FDA/LVD, by SGS (Société Générale de Surveillance SA). As of October 2019, following initial extensions, the handover was almost complete. For a new extension period until February 2021, though, SGS Liberia will continue providing hosting and maintenance for the LiberTrace system and will keep an evaluation role for the Export permits processed by the LVD. SGS countersigns the Export permits that it finds acceptable with regards to the requirements currently enforced for export permitting.

Contract holders are only allowed to fell trees when they are in the possession of a valid Annual Harvesting Certificate (AHC). This certificate can only be obtained after the contract holder has, among others, obtained an approved Annual Operation Plan (AOP) in addition to, for FMCs, an approved 5 Years’ Management Plan covering the area to be harvested, and a signed Social Agreement. The AOP shall specify the volume and species of the annual coupe, or the annual blocks of harvest, in case of FMCs.

Taxes and fees

Taxes and fees include, where relevant and applicable:

  • Auction Fee, Bid Premium, Land Rental Bid Fee, Sawmill Permit Fee, Timber Export License Fee, Chainsaw Lumber Fee;
  • Area Fee, Chain of Custody Registration Fee, Annual Contract Administration Fee, Annual Coupe/ Block Inspection Fee, Barcode Issuance Fee, Block Inspection Fee, Stumpage Fee, Forest Product Fee;
  • Waybill Fee, Log and wood product export fee.

Taxes and fees in the last two groups are invoiced by the LVD using LiberTrace. An Export Permit can only be issued when all taxes and fees relating to the forest products subject to the permit have been paid. The Tax Clearance Certificate (TCC) issued by the Liberian Revenue Authority (LRA) certifies that the timber operator has complied with all known tax requirements with the government (or has reached an agreement to defer/waive tax obligations), with the notable exception of forestry-related taxes and fees, since these are under FDA control (LRA source). The TCC is presented to qualify an Operator for signing forest contracts, for the AHC, and for an Export Permit.

Timber harvesting activities

Felling requirements listed by FDA for Export Permit include, for the respective export products:

a) Tax clearance; barcode issuance fee, block inspection fee;
b) Annual Harvesting Certificate (AHC);
c) Tree (at inventory stage) and log ID tag issuance;
d) Verification of Stock Survey Form (SSF)/ Tree Data Form (TDF).

Once the Inventory and Annual Coupe have been validated by LVD, and the AHC issued by the FDA NAD (National Authorizing Division), the Contract Holder is permitted to commence harvesting at the locations indicated on the Block map. The tree tag must remain on the stump, and a new log tag is affixed to the butt end of the long/“mother” log. Details of the harvested trees are recorded on a felled Tree Data Form (TDF) (a.k.a. “Felling Registration Form”, that will then be uploaded to LiberTrace). For each tree, the TDF is completed at the stump prior to trimming the felled tree into an initial long log; it includes: tree and log tag nos., species and dimensions. Once the corresponding trees have been felled, and the long logs labelled and measured, and the TDFs filled in, the Logging Operator can extract the long logs to the log landing in the forest. After cross-cutting, each crosscut log receives a new ID tag, for all logs to then be traceable back to the stump or location (block, cell) where the tree grew. The logs are recorded on a Log Data Form (LDF) a.k.a. “Cross-cut Form” for uploading to LiberTrace. The logs are prepared for transport with the help of Waybills. Special felling and Special entry forms are used under particular circumstances. 

Third parties' rights

FMC and TSC holding companies sign Social Agreements (SAs) with affected communities within 3.0 km following advanced notice. A SA attested to by the FDA is a pre-felling requirement and a condition for an AHC and an Export permit. A SA includes: code of conduct for the parties; dispute resolution mechanism; financial benefits payable to the community through quarterly payments to an escrow account. As part of implementing these SAs, a National Benefit Sharing Trust mechanism has been established to oversee the disbursements (cubic meter fee) to forest-affected communities and community projects.

Community Forest Management Agreements (CFMAs) allow communities to enter into contracts with logging companies for the purpose of community-based forest management. The new ‘Land Rights Act’ (09/2018) now recognizes customary land rights and includes important provisions on e.g. Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC). A regulation on ‘Third Party Access to Forest Resource License Areas’ (2017) is also in force.

It is generally recognized that the law reform and the EU-Liberia FLEGT VPA negotiation and implementation processes have been exemplary inclusive and participatory processes so far for the key stakeholder groups in Liberia.

Trade and transport

The COC System (COCS) of the LVD (which includes COCIS management, CoC inspections and legality verification and audits) is used to facilitate the verification of the three pillars for Export Permit Request (EPR) approval: Traceability, Legality and Fiscality, throughout the supply chain. The verification system is described in the LVD Manual of Procedures (2016) that contains the Liberia COCS Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).

Post-felling requirements listed by FDA for export permit include:

a) Stump verification
b) LDF (Log Data Form)
c) Transportation and Waybill checks
d) EPR/LDF submission
e) Log yard verification
f) Shipment specification (SPEC)
g) Shipment verification
h) Certificate of origin (COO)
i) Verification of taxes/fees paid

Waybill booklets having a unique barcode for identification are issued to concession holders against a fee. For transport, a waybill form is completed, including barcode, species and dimensions, as well as official barcoded stickers and references to the bar-coded tag numbers of the wood products of the load. These waybills can be checked in the forest concessions while loading, at checkpoints during transportation and at the log yard while unloading, by FDA and the LVD. Relevant SOP: 14.

Facilities mechanically processing the wood (sawmills) need to be in the possession of an annual Sawmill Permit. The sawmill receiving the logs keeps records of all wood raw materials entering the site (Sawmill Input Form), as well as records of stock, processing and exit of processed products (Sawmill Output Form). Processed products are labelled with official barcoded PVC labels. The details of inputs and outputs of the processing facility are uploaded in the COCIS. Relevant SOP: 20.

The COCIS is also used for the recording of exports of logs, timber and other wood products. Exporters of these products shall be in the possession of an Annual export registration in the first place. Upon successful LDF verification through log inspection in the log yard and against TDF & SSF before exportation, the logs can be submitted for issuance of an Export Permit, accompanied by an Export shipment specification (SPEC) listing the products and, upon request, issuance of a Certificate of Origin (COO) to the Operator. Export permits (EPs) are issued to exports that comply with the official “Requirements for Export Permit under Current regime” listed by the FDA, representing a set of minimum requirements for “legal exports” from Liberia that needs to be compared to EUTR requirements and is an interim measure prior to full implementation of FLEGT Licenses. The actual Shipment verification is done through an inspection of the logs while loading onto the ship. Relevant SOPs: 22, 23, and 26. The Operator must also have provided a Tax Clearance Certificate as proof of payment of export fees and other taxes.

A Certificate of origin (COO) is issued for certain export markets following the loading inspection, subject to receipt by LVD of the Bill of Lading (B/L) and a Short-shipped report. Relevant SOP: 25.

Key documents

The below listed key documents are based on the applicable legislation and are considered to play a key role in demonstrating legal origin. The information related to compliance with timber legality can be extracted from a subset of documents for which other documents are prerequisites.


Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
Forest logging contract or agreement signed between the FDA and the contract holder. The example document is an example of a FMC.
Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
Certificate allowing the contract holder to fell trees based on, among others, an approved Annual Operation Plan (AOP) and for FMCs an approved Management plan.
Detailed record of enumerated trees approved for felling, including location, species, DBH and height, submitted for stumpage invoicing and traceability. Data from TDFs is submitted by the Operator through Libertrace.
Record of harvested logs to be conveyed from the forest to the log yard. This document needs to be completed by the forest company and is verified by the LVD in the log yard before exportation. Data from LDFs is submitted by the Operator through LiberTrace.
Transport document for logs from the forest to a processing facility or the log yard. A booklet is obtained from the FDA. This document needs to be completed by the forest company and shall correspond with the LDF. The waybill is verified by the forest authorities.

Processing and trade

Sawmill permit
Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
Annual permit that is required for all mechanized wood processing facilities in Liberia.
Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MOCI)
Annual certificate confirming legal registration as commercial business in the country.
Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MOCI)
Certificate confirming payment of relevant taxes and fees. Duration of the certificate depends on the type of business.
Transport document of wood products. A booklet is obtained from the forest authorities. This document needs to be completed by the company and is verified by the forest authorities.
Export registration
Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
Annual registration of an exporter of wood products.
Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
The Export permit (EP) is required by law (NFRL 2006) to export Forest Products. EPs are issued for each export shipment on the basis of attested compliance with a certain number of traceability, fiscality and legality requirements.
The SPEC is the ‘Product Description’ section of the EP, listing the export shipment in a format obtained from the FDA. It needs to be completed by the company and will be checked at the point of export.
Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
A COO is issued to certify the origin of exported wood products, applying to logs, sawnwood and other wood products.
Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
Proof of payment of export fees, which will be checked at the point of export.

Bans and quota

There are no logging or export bans or quotas in place in Liberia.

Cites and protected species

CITES Notification No. 2018/012 maintains a recommendation to suspend commercial trade with Liberia in specimens of CITES-listed species until further notice for failure by Liberia to adopt appropriate legislative measures to implement the Convention.

There are no CITES-listed tree species in Appendix I and Appendix III for Liberia.

The following flora species from Liberia are listed on CITES Appendix II, though not necessarily tree species (196 species in total):

  • Cyathea camerooniana (CYATHEACEAE)
  • Pterocarpus erinaceus (LEGUMINOSAE), a.k.a. African rosewood, or kosso
  • Dalbergia spp. (LEGUMINOSAE)
  • Euphorbia prostrata (EUPHORBIACEAE)
  • A large number of species belonging to the ORCHIDACEAE family.

(Sources: CITES-listed species; Species+; KEW, Cites and Timber; NEPCon, A Practical Guide to CITES)

National action on timber legality

During Liberia’s prolonged civil war (1989-2003), timber revenues were misappropriated and used to sustain the conflict. In 2003 the United Nations (UN) Security Council imposed sanctions (embargo) on all imports of timber from Liberia. Since then, Liberia has made significant efforts to reform the forest sector including completing a comprehensive review of the regulatory framework, developing a national timber traceability system (SGS LiberFor, now LiberTrace) to track timber production and revenue payments, and reforming the FDA. In 2006, the UN Security Council lifted the sanctions to recognise Liberia’s progress and to open the way for Liberia to rebuild its forest sector.

In support of the forest reform process, Liberia and the EU entered into negotiations for a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) under the EU FLEGT Action Plan in March 2009. The VPA was signed in July 2011, and ratified in December 2013. In 2013, SGS was hired to further develop the CoC system and the rest of the Timber Legality Assurance System (TLAS) specified in the VPA. As part of the LAS, the COCS ensures traceability from the standing tree to the point of export and provides evidence to support the issuance of Export permits for timber coming from FMCs, TSCs and CFMAs.

As of October 2018, the VPA is still in its implementation phase. In March 2017, an Independent auditor was appointed for 3 years (now extended by one year) to assess the effectiveness of the TLAS being implemented in Liberia. Until the VPA is declared operational and Liberia can start issuing FLEGT Licenses, the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) requirements prevail for wood imports from Liberia into the EU markets.

Third party certification

Liberia currently has no independently issued forest management or timber legality certificates issued to forest or timber operators.


Delegation of the European Union to Liberia
37, Sékou Touré Avenue, Mamba point
Monrovia, Liberia
The EU Delegation (EUD) represents the Union in Liberia. It leads on the FLEGT VPA implementation for the EU side, ensuring overall coordination with the European Commission (DG DEVCO) and the EU Member States.
Environmental Protection Agency of Liberia (EPA)
4th Street Sinkor, Tubman Bd.
Monrovia, Liberia
The EPA is the principal authority in Liberia to co-ordinate, monitor, supervise and consult with relevant stakeholders on all activities in the protection of the environment and sustainable use of natural resources.
Forestry Development Authority (FDA)
Whein Town
Mount Barclay, Liberia
Tel: +231 0 888 000 000
The FDA is responsible for the regulation of utilization of forest and wildlife resources, the conservation and management of those resources and the coordination of related policies. The FDA also hosts the VPA Secretariat.
Fauna & Flora International Liberia (FFI)
FFI is an international NGO with various programmes in Liberia, including working to strengthen forest management in post-conflict Liberia.
Liberia Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (LEITI)
LEITI Office
Old Budget Bureau Building, behind the Executive Mansion
Monrovia, Liberia
Tel: +231 (0)770 259 734
Liberia implements the international EITI Standard and is required to publish an annual EITI Report disclosing information on: contracts and licenses, production, revenue collection, revenue allocation, and social and economic spending. The report reconciles data provided by companies and by the Government. LEITI works through a Multi-stakeholder Steering Group (MSG) to improve the governance of the Extractive sector in Liberia.
Liberia Timber Association (LTA)
2nd Floor, UMC Compound, 12th street, Sinkor
Monrovia, Liberia
Tel: +231 0 886 517 811
The LTA represents private sector firms, including the concessionaires and logging companies of the formal forest industry sector and companies wishing (i.e. undergoing pre-qualification/ pre-qualified) to operate in the forestry sector.
National Port Authority of Liberia (NPA)
Freeport of Monrovia, Bushrod Island
P.O. Box 1849
Monrovia, Liberia
Tel: +231 0 2 760 6001
Tel: +231 0 2 760 6006
Tel: +231 0 7 771 8937
Managing, planning, and building all public ports in Liberia.
National Union of Community Forestry Development Committees (NUCFDC)
NGO Coalition Building in Duazon City
Margibi County / RIA Highway
The Community Forestry Development Committees (CFDCs) are the representative organizations of Affected Forest Communities (within or around concession areas) and help the communities get funds from the NBSTB for community projects.
Sustainable Development Institute (SDI)
Duazon Village
Robertsfield Highway
PO Box 5678
Monrovia, Liberia
SDI is a Liberian NGO founded in 2002, working to transform and improve natural resource-related decision-making processes in the country. SDI focuses on resource governance, corruption, community benefits and public participation. The organisation actively participates in the national and international discussions on forests and climate change.
SGS Liberia Inc.
FDA Compound, Whein Town, Mount Barclay, Montserrado County
Monrovia, Liberia
Tel: +231 0 7787 4352
Party responsible for the development and implementation of the national timber traceability system (COCIS) known as ‘LiberTrace’ and building the capacity of the LVD and other FDA departments.


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