According to the new map of forest cover and land use of Honduras that was built in 2018, the total forested area of Honduras has been reassessed at 6.3 million hectares (ha), equivalent to 56% of the national territory, not including agroforestry, secondary vegetation, savannahs and other forms of vegetation cover. Broadleaf forests, with 4.1 million ha, represent 64.5% of the total Honduran forest area; they are located mainly in the lower North and East parts of the country, where rainfalls are abundant and well distributed throughout the year. The coniferous (pine) forests with 1.9 million ha then make another 30.9% of the total forest area; they are located in the high central parts of the country and form the second major ecosystem of Honduras. Mixed forests with 0.239 million ha represent another 3.8% of the total forest area. Mangroves and flooded forests, with 50,165 ha, only represent 0.8% of the forest area but they constitute an irreplaceable and unique ecosystem that houses an incredible biodiversity. (ICF, Area and types of land cover in the Republic of Honduras).
The forests of Honduras are biologically very diverse, but only a few tree species are the subject of significant timber trade. Pine forests are mainly represented by 7 species of the Pinus genus that constitute the basis of the primary wood-processing industry of the country. Oocarpa and caribea pines (Pinus oocarpa, Pinus caribea) are, by far, the most important. Other important hardwood timber species include Santa María (Calophyllum brasiliense), Laurel (Cordia alliodora), Ceiba (Ceiba pentandra), Tamarindo (Dialium guianense), San Juan (Vochysia guatemalensis), Masica (Brosimum alicastrum), Sangre (Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq.), Caobina (Virola koschnyi), Cumbillo (Terminalia amazonica); Caoba del Atlántico (Swietenia macrophylla); Cedro macho (Carapa guianensis); Cedro real (Cedrela odorata), and Macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea), all hardwood species.
About 62% of the national forest area is publicly owned, including national forests (40%) and protected forests (18%). The remaining 38% of the national forest area is under private ownership, which includes privately owned forests, community forests and tribal forests. However, the possession and traditional usufruct of national forests by settlers without definition of ownership have given rise to different denominations of different usufruct regimes in various parts of the country. The regularization of the rights of settlers in national forests is still a preponderant factor in the rational use of these resources and therefore an important variable of socioeconomic development in the country. In the last 10 years, several governments have recognized public lands for indigenous communities and some legal representatives have been delegated to manage and harvest forests. This process is being used in various parts of the country and does not alter state property. (MOSEF Project, 2017)
At the end of 2018, the growing area under forest management reached 421,773 ha (2016: 278,720 ha), in 871 management plans currently in force (2016: 614), with an estimated productive capacity (annual growth) of 700,554 m3 per year (2016: 551,362 m3), and it is distributed according to land tenure as follows (Source: ICF Forest Statistical Annuary 2018, Chap. 3):
- 50 Management plans on national land with 101,273 ha;
- 15 Management plans on Ejidal (municipal) land with 67,342 ha; and
- 806 Management plans on private land with 252,922 ha.
In terms of deforestation, most of the forests that are located close to urban centres have been exploited without proper control to be used for firewood and raw construction timber. The total loss of forest in Honduras over 2000 – 2016 was approximately 372,857 ha, with an average annual loss rate of 23,304 ha/yr (2006 - 2012 being the period with the greatest deforestation rate). The ecosystem that was most affected by deforestation is the evergreen broadleaved rainforest, with an average loss of 17,408 ha/yr, followed by the deciduous broadleaved forest (3,187 ha/yr), the coniferous forest (2,635 ha/yr) and the mangrove forest (75 ha/yr).
The average recovery of forests in Honduras over the same period was 2,353 ha/yr (2000 - 2006 being the period with the highest increase). The ecosystem that presented the greatest activity in terms of forest recovery is the broadleaf rainforest with an average annual gain of 1,285 ha/yr. (ICF, Forest Statistical Annuary 2018, Chap. 2)
Production and export
As can be observed from the table below (ITTO) the vast majority of Honduran wood production serves the domestic market. In 2017, the exports of round logs were limited to around 9’000 m3, i.e. only 1% of the total production of 770’000 m3. The exports of sawnwood, being the most important primary timber export product with around 175’000 m3, accounted in 2015 for 57% of the Honduran total sawnwood production (306’000 m3). The exports of plywood, being the second most important product, were only about 10,000 m3 in 2017.
The contribution of the forestry sector to the national GDP in 2018 was 0.80%, with USD 63.2 million (ICF Forest Statistical Annuary 2018, Chap.11).
The total volume of harvested logs for 2018 was 287,619 m3 (preliminary data, pending updating by ICF). It was down, from 669,300 m3 in 2016, and 438,760 m3 in 2017 (latest official data), reflecting a downward trend since 2002 when it almost reached 1 million m3 (same source, Chap. 3, Table 22).
The reported total production for the primary processing industry (sawnwood, plywood, others) in 2018 was of 322,510 m3 (same source, Table 41). 107 companies reported production during 2018. The data in Table 41 comes from mandatory monthly reports sent to the ICF and is considered reliable.
The ICF however admits challenges in collecting (and verifying) reliable data from the industry on roundwood. The data in Table 22 comes from the computerized wood traceability system (SIRMA) and not all industries have the equipment or skilled staff to use the system. Table 43 (same source, Chap. 3) provides different numbers for the total volume of harvested logs (255,930 m3 in 2018, pending updating by ICF, after 503,700 m3 in 2016 and 557,500 m3 in 2017); and slightly different numbers for the reported total production of the primary processing industry (294,414 m3 in 2018, after 259,242 m3 in 2016, and 293,427 m3 in 2017). For these reasons, calculated recovery yields based on these data cannot be relied upon.
Despite such uncertainties regarding the total volumes (roundwood and primary production), the resulting proportions are assumed to be valid: out of a total supply of round logs of 1,395,670 m3 over the last three years, 1,379,720 m3 (98.9%) corresponded to pine wood and the remaining 15,950 m3 (1,1%) to broadleaf forests’ hardwood (Table 22). For pine wood, out of a primary production of 68,212 m3, 63,739 m3 (93.4%) came from the industry and 4,472 m3 (6.6%) from mobile or chainsaw milling in the field (Table 36). For hardwood timber, a reported primary production of 5,158 m3 was divided between a minority of 770 m3 (14.9%) by the industry while 4,388 m3 (85.1%) came from mobile or chainsaw milling in the field (Table 38). The four regions that reported the highest primary production during 2018 are Francisco Morazán (77.3%), Northwest (8%), Comayagua (6.3%) and Yoro (3.7%), representing 95.3% of the total primary production of the country in 2018 (Table 35). The production of hardwood species almost entirely comes from the Atlantic coastal región and north west.
The distribution per types of primary products in 2018 (m3) shows: Sawn timber 248,747, Chopsticks 22,847, Plywood 22,369, Pallets 12,752, Nasas (fish traps) 6,970, Tampas (tutor for agricultural crops) 992, and Others 7,831, for a Total of 332,510 (ICF Annuary 2018, Table 40).
To see a satellite map of Honduran ports, visit World Port Source. The destination countries of timber from Honduras are primarily the United States of America and countries in the region, as can be observed from the graph below.
According to the ICF Forest Statistical Annuary 2018 (Chap. 10), the net balance in monetary value between exports (USD 66.6 million) and imports (USD 46.9 million) is positive (USD 19.8 million), which means that Honduras is a net exporter of wood products, although the majority of exports correspond to semi-finished products. The five biggest export values in 2018 were pine sawnwood (24.7), wooden furniture (12.2), wood packing (11.8), wooden tool handles (5.8), and wood stakes (4.6). Europe imported forest products from Honduras for 4.3 million of USD in 2018. The five most appreciated products (in USD million) were tree seeds (2.4), wooden furniture (0.7), wood boards (0.5), mouldings (0.2), and wood packing (0.1).
Sources of information
- Chatham House – Old Illegal Logging portal
- ClientEarth - Forest Logbook, Forest law database, Honduras
- EFI, EU FLEGT Facility - VPA Country fiches, Honduras
- FAO (2016) Forest Statistics Yearbook
- FAO (2020) Global Forest Resources Assessment
- FAOSTAT - Country profile Honduras
- Fordaq - timber trade network
- ICF, Area and types of land cover in the Republic of Honduras, with figures from the Map of forest cover and land use (Mapa de cobertura forestal y usos de la tierra), Unidad de Monitoreo Forestal/CIPF, 2018
- ICF, Ficha técnica del sistema de clasificación del mapa forestal y cobertura de la tierra de Honduras 2018, Unidad Nacional de Monitoreo Forestal, 2019
- ICF, Forest Statistical Annuary 2018 (Anuario Estadístico Forestal de Honduras 2018), 2019
- IMM, FLEGT - VPA country profiles, Honduras
- ITC (International Trade Centre), calculations based on UN Comtrade statistics
- ITTO (2011), Status of tropical forest management
- ITTO (2017), ITTO Biennial review and assessment of the world timber situation 2015-2016
- MOSEF Project (2017)
- NEPCon Sourcing Hub - Honduras Timber Risk Profile
- World Port Source, Map of ports in Honduras with container liner service
- WRI Forest Legality Alliance, Timber risk tool - Honduras.
Forestry and environment institutions
The Instituto Nacional de Conservación y Desarrollo Forestal, Áreas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre (ICF), in English ‘National Institute of Forest Conservation and Development, Protected Areas and Fauna’, is the national forest authority in charge of supervising forest management, industrial extraction, transport and processing of forest products, although other state entities may also participate in forest control activities.
The Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre de Honduras (SINAPH), in English ‘National System of Protected Areas and Forest Wildlife of Honduras’, is an instance described in the Forest Law, that is responsible for developing, regulating and supervising scientific and applied research carried out in protected areas or on their biodiversity, taking into account the management categories and respecting the traditional and cultural practices of local communities.
The Agenda Forestal Hondureña (AFH), in English 'Honduran Forestry Agenda', is an independent, non-governmental (by its statutes, and being governed by a Board of Directors and an Executive Coordinator), of public interest and right, apolitical and non-for-profit association. Its membership within the National Forestry Advisory Council (COCONAFOR) reinforces its role as a driver of participatory processes in the development of the country’s forest resources, while aiming at reducing environmental vulnerability and combating poverty, which includes:
- The facilitation of processes for the development of the forestry sector
- Forming alliances between national and international institutions and organizations
- Participation in the implementation of the National Forestry Program (Biodiversity and Protected Areas, Climate Change, Forest Certification and community participation) and in national and international processes such as the AVA-FLEGT, REDD +, and Climate Change.
Forest governance in Honduras emerged when the Administración Forestal del Estado (AFE), in English ‘State Forestry Administration’, was created in 1974 under the Ministry of Natural Resources. Since its creation, the AFE has been legally identified with different names (General Forest Directorate, COHDEFOR and now ICF), and with different initiatives to manage the sustainable use and conservation of forest resources.
Currently, in compliance with the Forestry law of 1972, the 'National Strategy for the Control of Illegal Logging and Illegal Transport of Forest Products' (‘Estrategia Nacional para el Control de la Tala y Transporte Ilegales de los Productos Forestales’ – ENCTI - in Spanish) was defined, in which two Forest Advisory Councils were developed and organized at different levels of hierarchy, as instances of citizen participation, consultation and support for the ICF.
With a view to further strengthening forest sector governance, the EU is promoting, together with the national authorities, the negotiation of the EU-Honduras Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) under the EU Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT). FLEGT is the EU initiative established in 2003 to improve governance and reduce illegal logging by promoting the legal and sustainable management of forest resources. (See NATIONAL ACTION ON TIMBER LEGALITY)
Other initiatives have included the ‘Forestry sector modernization project of Honduras’ (Proyecto ‘Modernización del Sector del Forestal de Honduras’, in Spanish). (MOSEF Project, 2013-2017)
Forest code and relevant regulations
- Forest Law, Protected Areas and Wildlife (‘Ley Forestal, Áreas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre’ in Spanish) and its implementing Decree No. 156-2007;
- General Environmental Law (Ley General del Ambiente) and its Decree No. 104-93;
- Law on incentives for afforestation, reforestation and forest protection (Ley de Incentivos a la Forestación, Reforestación y a la Protección del Bosque) and its Decree No. 163-93
In order to harvest, the area requires a 5-Year General Management Plan (‘Plan General de Manejo’, in Spanish) that includes an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and is approved by the ICF. From this are derived the Annual Operation Plans, which are those that empower the forest administrator to extract wood and other forest products indicated in the Management Plan or Master Plan.
The Forest Law distinguishes different types of management plans as part of the General Management Plan, in different situations:
- Management plans for national forests (planes de manejo en bosques nacionales);
- Management plans for private forests (planes de manejo en bosques privados);
- Management plans for municipal forests (planes de manejo en bosque municipal / ejidal);
- Management plans for protected areas (planes de manejo para áreas protegidas declaradas);
- Management plans for micro basins (planes de manejo en microcuencas declaradas);
- Special management plans for agroforestry groups (planes de manejo especiales para grupos agroforestales - PESA) related to Community forest management contracts;
- Plans for (pest/ insect/ disease/ fire) risk control or salvage (planes de control y salvamento) for infected or damaged trees still of commercial value (otherwise a ‘licencia no comercial’ will allow the owner to use a small volume of wood for non-commercial use); and
- Sanitation plans (planes de saneamiento) for the removal of remnants and abandonned trees/ logs after logging, for cleaning and also risk control, usually as firewood.
The exact requirements of these plans also vary depending on the size of the territory (small, medium, or large) under a Forest management contract (Contrato de Manejo Forestal). All plans should be formulated by certified forestry professionals and then submitted for approval to the ICF and the municipality where the forest area is located. The involvement and participation in forest management activities of the people who live in, and around the forests has recently become important.
All Forest Management Plans (Planes de manejo) describe the activities that will be carried out during a specific period of time, in order to harvest the wood present in a forest or group of forested areas. The FMP must at least comply with the following aspects (See U-ESNACIFOR, 2015): In general, pine forests are managed with the technical criteria of the management of regulated or uniform forests in their development, despite the fact that in most cases their extraction is selective, since the new forest stands are the product of dissemination of seeds of selected trees (“Father Trees”), although artificial plantation is always considered. Hardwood species almost entirely originate in natural forests. Due to the large number of species and different biological ages existing per unit area in this type of forest, the content of a management plan in a broadleaf forest is totally different from that in a coniferous forest.
According to the current Forest Law, forestland conversion to other uses and changes to the vegetation are not allowed without permission of the ICF.
A Certificate of natural regeneration (Certificado de Regeneración natural) is issued to the owners of natural forest areas in recognition by the State of forest management plans that have achieved natural regeneration in those areas, thanks to treatments that have contributed to the recovery of degraded areas, and defines the rights and obligations derived from it. A Plantation certificate (Certificado de plantación) is issued in recognition by the State of plantations established by the owners of forest areas, for either production (CPLANTA) or protection (CPROTE), and defines the rights and obligations derived from it.
The Annual operation plan - AOP (‘Plan Operativo anual’) contains the guidelines for forest management activities to be applied in a particular area in the period of one year. The technical prescription of all forest management activities, plus the volumetric information and trees to be extracted, should be reflected in the AOP, which will become the execution tool for field activities. The AOP facilitates the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the actions proposed in the EIA (See U-ESNACIFOR, Manual de Manejo Forestal Integral, 2015).
Once the technical prescription document is available, with its orientation and parameters to be followed, preparation of the AOP will be carried out, within the framework of the forest management plan for the site. In this sense, the management plan’s information such as: volume, areas to intervene, location maps, compartments and strata should be used.
The Felling Plan is part of the AOP, and the information required by the ICF to manage the Felling Plan, is as follows:
A. Documentation required in national forests
- Contract document of the auction, or full management agreement, with all its programs (maps, volumes, clauses, etc.) duly approved
- Tax payment receipts
- Payment receipts to the ICF
- Bank guarantee that the buyer of the contract has placed
- Proof that the contractor is registered with ICF
B. Documentation required in private and “ejidal” (municipal) land forests
- Complete AOP (maps, volumes, clauses, etc.) duly approved
- Tax payment receipts
- Payment receipts for administrative services
Proof that the contractor is registered with ICF
(See ICF, Guía de administración de planes de aprovechamiento en bosques de pino 2012).
There are various payable taxes and fees in forest management, particularly:
- “Canon de tronconaje” (Tax on extracted wood) to ICF, paid per cubic meter wood
- AOP Preparation Cost (Annual Operating Plan), paid per cubic meter wood
- AOP Administration Cost, paid per cubic meter wood
- Accounting Services, which is an annual single payment
- Audit report, which is an annual single payment
- Forest Certification, paid per cubic meter wood. This is mandatory and must be done by certified forestry professionals.
In addition to these costs, each municipality is entitled to apply Municipality charges at an autonomously fixed rate.
The General management plan is followed by the preparation and approval of the Annual operation plan (AOP - see above). The AOP needs to be approved by the ICF, based on on-site local verification by ICF inspectors, prior to tree felling and based on the AOP, that the marked trees were authorized for felling.
The logging company is requested to identify each piece of wood with a unique code. For every felled tree, the volume and number of pieces must be recorded in a Tree report (Informe Técnico, or Planilla), which is completed on-site and reviewed by local ICF inspectors, and forms the basis of the checks whenever the timber is transported from one place to another. The original Tree Report remains with the logging company, while a copy is given to the local ICF office. The ICF needs to define and approve the transport routes of the harvested timber, identifying the transfer stations and the collection centres.
Post-felling requirements, post-felling inspection
Forest activity report (Bitácora, in Spanish)
For the registration, control and monitoring of forestry activities, the qualified forest technician in charge of the administration will carry a logbook in which he/she must keep record of the execution of the approved Felling plan until harvesting is completed. The activities that must be registered are: pre-op meeting, request for waybills, delivery of waybills, request for unit changes, observations and recommendations of the field inspections, notifications to the owner, notifications to the contractor, request of new “bacadillas” (piles of round wood in the forest), inspection of total settlement and any other aspect that the technician considers relevant. Any notification made by the forest technician in the logbook must be signed by the person who was notified. (See ICF Manual ‘Guidelines and norms for better forest management’; Lineamientos y normas para un mejor manejo forestal 2011, in Spanish)
Supervision of operations
As a minimum, the ICF supervisor of the Felling plan will make periodic visits, or as the procedure of the AOP requires. Inspections focus on the areas and activities of the Felling plan that have the greater potential environmental impacts, such as:
- Respect of the boundaries;
- Protection of water streams;
- Tree felling;
- Damage to the remaining forest.
(See ICF Manual ‘Guidelines and norms for better forest management’)
Within the criteria for sustainable forest management of which Honduras is a signatory, Indicator no.1 mentions the "Existence of a legal, political, institutional, technical, economic and social framework that guarantees and promotes the sustainable management and conservation of forests” where reference is made to the respect of cultural values for the use of forest resources in territories under the control of local populations with emphasis on indigenous populations. More information on progress in the implementation and application of this Indicator, however, is not, or not officially available. (See FAO report ‘Criteria and indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Central America‘)
The regional ICF office approves and issues a Transport Document or Waybill (Guía de movilización), which is the main document that accompanies the timber from the harvesting site to the next destination (industrial manufacturer / buyer’s site). Before a truck loaded with logs may leave the harvesting site, an ICF inspector measures all the logs to be extracted on the Waybill. The original approved Waybill is given to the driver of the truck and 4 copies to the forest manager/owner and to the qualified forestry experts (‘Técnicos Forestales Calificados’ – TFC in Spanish). The truck driver must present the original Waybill at fixed checkpoints, where the national police stamps it. Finally, the completed, approved and stamped Waybill is given to the buyer. The buyer must then report to the ICF on a monthly basis all inputs of raw material, matching the Waybills (Waybill number, volume, species, type of product, AOP number, date). The regional ICF office uploads all data from the Waybills to the online information system called ‘SIRMA’ and checks the archives.
Every commercial sale of wood from forest harvesting companies must be accompanied by a commercial invoice (‘Factura comercial’, in Spanish) that matches the reported outputs at the collection site. At the sales stores and processing industry sites, a Register of purchases and sales (‘Registro de Compras y Ventas’, in Spanish) is kept, linking the information on the Waybill with that of the buyer of the timber and the commercial invoice issued.
The below listed key documents are based on the applicable legislation and are considered to play a key role in demonstrating legal origin.
Processing and Trade
Bans and quota
The export of hardwood species from natural forests is only allowed as transformed or processed wood. Exporting hardwood species as roundwood or only squared logs is prohibited.
Cites and protected species
There are several tree species from Honduras that are CITES-listed.
CITES Appendix I:
- Guatemalan fir (Abies guatemalensis)
CITES Appendix II:
- Bigleaf mahogany, or “Caoba del Atlántico” (Swietenia macrophylla)
- Cedro (Cedrela spp., neotropic populations). Coming into force as from August 28, 2020.
- Dalbergia nigra (Dalbergia spp.)
- Granadillo (Platymiscium pleiostachyum)
- Honduras mahogany, or “Caoba del pacifico” (Swietenia humilis)
- Lignum vitae (Guaiacum spp.)
National action on timber legality
In 2010, ICF adopted a national strategy for the control of illegal harvesting and transport of forest products (ENCTI).
In January 2013, Honduras was the first country in the Americas to enter into negotiations of a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) – Acuerdo Voluntario de Asociación (AVA), in Spanish - on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) with the EU. On June 14, 2018 the EU and Honduras concluded the VPA negotiations and marked the formal end of the negotiations by initialing the document, ahead of signing and ratifying it. The agreement will help improve forest governance, address illegal logging and promote trade in verified legal timber products from Honduras. Through the agreement, Honduras also expects to modernise its forestry sector, improve business competitiveness and address issues such as land tenure.
To implement the agreement, Honduras will develop systems and procedures to verify that all timber and timber products for export and domestic markets comply with relevant laws and regulations. The VPA also provides for the establishment of complaints mechanisms and independent audits, as well as commitments to transparency in the forest sector.
Of the 15 countries now negotiating or implementing a VPA with the EU, Honduras is the only one to have recognised indigenous peoples as a distinct group alongside government, civil society and private sector representatives in the process to shape the agreement’s content. As a result, the agreement directly addresses issues affecting indigenous peoples.
The EU and Honduras will jointly oversee implementation of the agreement. This substantial task will require the continued commitment and engagement of all stakeholders. Once the VPA is fully implemented, Honduran shipments of timber products to the EU will have to be accompanied by a FLEGT License, demonstrating their legality. FLEGT-licensed products automatically meet the requirements of the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR), which prohibits the placing of illegal timber on the EU market.
In March 2019, Honduras and the EU concluded the second meeting of the VPA Pre Joint Implementation Committee.
The signature of the agreement was planned for 2020, however the process was being delayed because of the Covid-19 outbreak.
VPA implementation activities to date may not have delivered many firm and final results yet, but work is on-going, with regular consultancies, workshops, meetings and trainings being carried out (Technical Secretary of the VPA) with EU support. In relation to land tenure issues, achievements during the 2007-2018 period have included the registration of 90,956 ha of productive forest and 646,534 ha located in protected areas in the national property, real estate and commercial registry in favor of the State of Honduras (Catalogo del Patrimonio Público-Forestal Inalienable) while protecting the rights of indigenous and Afro-Honduran communities.
More information: Honduras VPA web page
Third party certification
Currently, there is one valid FSC Group forest management certificate in Honduras covering a total area of 17,815 ha of forest with 25 members. This group certificate is held by the COATLAHL cooperative (Cooperativa Regional Agroforestal Colón, Atlántida Honduras Ltda.) on behalf of small timber-producing community groups, who manage natural broadleaf forests (FSC Facts and Figures, 2020).
Sources of information
- Chatham House – Old Illegal Logging portal
- ClientEarth - Forest Logbook, Forest law database, Honduras
- CITES database
- CLIFOR (2015) Manual de manejo forestal integral (U-ESNACIFOR, Siguatepeque, Honduras; EUROFOR/Programa adaptación al Cambio Climático en el Sector Forestal
- EFI, EU FLEGT Facility - VPA Country fiches, Honduras
- FAO, Criteria and indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Central America’. Report‘ (‘Criterios indicadores para la Ordenación Forestal Sostenible en Centroamérica. Informe’, FAO-CCAD (Comisión Centroamericana de Ambiente y Desarrollo), CCAB-AP (Consejo Centroamericano de Bosques y Areas Protegidas), Enero 1997
- FSC report “Facts & Figures” – January 2020
- FSC, Benefits that FSC certification has brought to smallholders – Case study Honduras (Furniture cooperative in Honduras), January 2013
- FSC, National Standard of Honduras, Centralized National Risk Assessment for Honduras
- ICF, Forest Statistical Annuary (Anuario Estadístico Forestal de Honduras) 2018
- ICF, Formato para la elaboración de planes de aprovechamiento forestal en bosque latifoliado de Honduras (2012)
- ICF, Guía de administración de planes de aprovechamiento en bosques de pino (ICF, USAID/US-IP, Tegucigalpa, 2012)
- ICF, Guía para la Organización de la Plataforma de Gobernanza Forestal Ambiental del Departamento de El Paraíso, Honduras - Programa UE-FAO FLEGT/ICF/AFH)
- ICF Manual ‘Guidelines and norms for better forest management’ (Lineamientos y normas para un mejor manejo forestal, ICF, FSDA/USAID Honduras, 2011)
- ICF, Normas y pautas técnicas para la elaboración de planes de manejo operativos de bosque latifoliado (2012)
- ICF, Tasas y derechos por servicio prestado. Nota personal. Departamento de Manejo y Desarrollo Forestal (2018)
- IMM, FLEGT - VPA country profiles, Honduras
- NEPCon Sourcing Hub - Honduras Timber Risk Profile
- Rainforest Alliance (2017) Annual report
- WRI Forest Legality Alliance - Timber risk tool - Honduras
Source: Transparancy International