Central African Republic
The forests of the Central African Republic (CAR) can be distinguished in the dense humid rainforest in the south and north of these forests a dryer transition zone between forest and savannah. About 90% of the nation is covered with more or less dense wooded and shrubby savannas. The dense humid rainforests of the south-west and, to a lesser extent, the Bangassou region, which are mainly semi-deciduous, cover over 3 million hectares and only 5.5% of the nation. The forest production areas are exclusively located in the south-west's dense forest massif. From an economic standpoint, this semi-deciduous forest is one of Africa's richest. In addition to a relatively high density of Sapelli (Entandrophragmacylindricum), and other Meliaceae, there are significant concentrations of Ayous (Triplochytonscleroxylon) and Fraké (Terminaliasuperba).
Out of a national area covering 62.3 million ha, CAR has nearly 6.9 million hectares of dense forests. In relation to the Congo Basin's total forests, though, CAR accounts for only 3.71%. It appears that 44.6% of CAR's total area of dense humid forests areused for production purposes (FRMi, 2018).
Almost the whole forest area (98.9%) belongs to the state.
The Central African forest law (2008) splits the national forest domain into two parts: the permanent forest domain (the south-west massif, the Bangassou massif and the savannas) and the non-permanent forest domain (public authorities' forest areas, private individuals' forests and community forests).
Production and export
All of the production forests of the south-west massif are attributed in the form of PEAs (Permis d'Exploitation et d'Aménagement - Logging and Development Permit). The massif is split into 14 PEAs, attributed to 8 companies / corporate groups. 4 of them account for over 80% of the total logs produced.
According to national legislation currently in effect in CAR, forest concessionaires must process 70% of the logs they harvest within a processing unit (sawmill, peeling unit, etc.), for the main species that are harvested (so-called 1st category species).
According to ITTO (2019) the industry of the Central African Republic produced in 2017 about 627 thousand m3 of logs. However, other sources (CDF 2018) indicate that 530,000 m3 of logs were produced in 2017, of which nearly 280,000 m3were exported in the form of logs and 80% of the sawnwood produced was exported.
The timber industry of the CAR is relatively small, but still accounts for 40% of the country’s export earnings. Due to the landlocked location of the CAR and the relatively poor transportation infrastructure the costs to export material are relatively high. Transport of timber via road to Cameroon or by river and rail to Pointe Noire in the Republic of the Congo is costly, and consequently there is an incentive to process materials in the country instead of exporting them.
Of the 300 potential timber species found in the closed forest area, only 34 are typically harvested. 80% of the production concerns 4 species. Sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum) alone accounts for more than half of the production, followed by Mukulungu (Autranella congolensis), Iroko (Milicia excelsa) and Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon). Next are Padouk (Pterocarpus spp.), Dibetu (Lovoa trichilioides), Tali (Erythrophleum ivorense) and Sipo (Entandrophragma utile) - (FRMi, 2018).
Sources of information
- BAD (2018) Rapport stratégique Régional. Développement intégré et durable de la filière bois dans le Bassin du Congo :Opportunités, défis et recommandations opérationnelles
- FRMi (2018) FAC 2030 : vision stratégique et industrialisation de la filière bois en Afrique Centrale- Horizon 2030- Rapport pays RCA.
- ITC (2020) List of importing markets for wood products exported by the Central African Republic in 2019
- FAO (2015) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015.
- Fordaq - timbertrade network
- Forest Legality Alliance - Country profile Central African Republic
- ITTO (2020) ITTO Biennial review and assessment of the world timber situation 2017-2018. The volumes reported by the country’s government differ to some extent from the volumes reported by the ITTO.
- WRI Congo Basin Forest Atlas – Central African Republic
Forest management is currently governed by the forestry law enacted in 2008. Contrary to the other countries of the sub-region, the Ministry in charge of Forests is responsible for the drawing up of the Management Plans of the attributed permits. From 2000 to 2011, the Ministry received support from the PARPAF (Projet d'Appui à la Réalisation des Plans d'Aménagement Forestier - Project to Support the Implementation of Forest Management Plans) to manage a significant portion of the production forests. Following the completion of this project, the AGDRF (Agence de Gestion Durable des Ressources Forestières - Agency for the Sustainable Management of Forest Resources) was created in 2012 (law no. 12.006) to monitor the implementation of management plans already drawn up and to draw up management plans for permits that don't have one yet. As of October 2016, the AGDRF is backed by the PDRSO (Projet de Développement Régional du Sud-Ouest - South-West Regional Development Project).
Official authorization for logging must be obtained from the services of the Ministry of Water, Forests, Hunting and Fishing (Ministère des Eaux, Forêts, Chasse et Pêche – MEFCP).
Logging operations take place in the production forests and cutting areas, and may be conducted by individual artisanal loggers or concessionaires.
To log, artisanal loggers must obtain a one year renewable permit (permis artisanal) and their operation areas should not exceed 10 hectares. This permit isawardedmainly to CAR citizens.
Each concessionaire must hold a decree (issued by the Council of Ministers) granting a forest logging and management permit (PEA - permis d'exploitation et d'aménagement). Use of the permit is subject to the signing of a provisional management agreement (CPA - convention provisoire d’aménagement), valid for 3 years and covering 3 provisional cutting areas, allowing the company to launch inventories to carry out its land use plan over the 3 years, including the forest management plan for all annual harvesting blocks.
At the end of the 3 years, the concessionaires must have and hold an approved management plan. Inspections and monitoring of the implementation of the plans are the responsibility of the water and forestry administration. The management plan may be revised every five years. In the event of a revision, the application must mention the constraints or new data that justify it.
Article 32 of the forest code stipulates that the PEA permit is granted for a period equal to the life of the company. However, failure to comply with the provisions of the management plan may result in the company being subject to the penalties provided for in Article 201 (of the forest code). This attribution is renewable as long as the beneficiary company complies with the provisions of the management plan and the currently applicable regulations.
The logging and management permit is strictly tied to the recipient company. It may not give rise to a transfer, asale or subcontracting.
As of 2014 (Order of 21 Jan 2014 issued by the Minister of the Environment), logging companies are required to carry out an environmental impact audit (for companies already established for over 3 years) or an impact study (for those that have just been established). The approval of the audit/assessment reports results in the issuance of a certificate of compliance, which must be renewed every 3 years.
The granting of any logging and management permits is strictly prohibited in ecologically sensitive areas. An implementing decree specifies the boundaries of these zones.
All logging companies, regardless of the origin of their capital, are subject to the payment of forest taxes and usage fees.
- the felling tax, calculated on the basis of the volume of timber species that are exported, is to be paid each month. Companies exporting timber in logs are required to provide the General Directorate in charge of Forests(no later than the 20th of each month for the previous month) with their "timber movements", using the unique form provided by the forest administration.
- the reforestation tax, calculated on the basis of the volume of timber species that are exported, is to be paid each month on the basis of the summary statement.
Forest taxes are payable before the products are released for export.
Thus, in order to enable the proper calculation of their tax rates, companies must submit a monthly report indicating the volume of timber harvested and processed to the forest administration and the BIVAC (Bureau Inspection Valuation Assessment Control). As the contract with BIVAC is about to expire, another company will carry out pre-export inspections.
After approval of the management plan, the holder of the logging title is to draw up a management plan for the first forest management unit outlined in the management plan. Further management plans shall be submitted for each forest management unit, and done in the harvesting order provided for in the management plan.
Each year before starting operations, an annual operating plan (PAO - plan annuel d’opération) is prepared by the company for the annual harvesting block, which is submitted to the department of forest inventory and land use (DIAF - Direction des Inventaires et Aménagement Forestiers) for verification and approval. After approval, the DIAF issues an annual harvesting authorisation.
Selected trees are felled and the stumps and logs are marked with the unique and registered mark of the company's log stamp hammer. The felling data is recorded in a worksite register and timber movement documents are prepared. These records must be submitted to the forest directorate each month (see tax section) so that it can calculate taxes and forestry statistics.
The absence of any logging activity for a period of one year or more without prior authorisation from the administration may be considered a breach of the management plan and result in the withdrawal of the logging and management permit. Logging activity that would use less than 50% of the volume of the harvesting block base (as provided for in the annual operating plan) may be considered, following expert appraisal by the administration, as a breach of the management plan.
By virtue of customary law, the local populations have usage rights, subject to compliance with currently applicable legislation, in terms of their use of forest products, free of charge and for their subsistence, with the exception of so-called protected species.
Customary use rights include:
- rights relating to the forest floor;
- rights relating to natural forest products, known as non-timber forest products (NTFP), some of which may be of commercial interest.
- to the gathering of dead wood;
- to activities linked to the use of forest products other than lumber;
- to the use of service timber intended for the construction of dwellings or the manufacture of objects and tools;
- to the use of timber for the construction of canoes, as well as other boats;
- to the controlled use of wildlife for self-consumption, outside of national parks, wilderness reserves and sanctuaries.
Logging companies are subject to taxation on their production, part of which (30% of felling taxes and 25% of reforestation taxes) is paid to the towns affected by the harvesting of the concession. The amounts, allocated monthly to each town, are intended to contribute to local development by funding infrastructures and collective social facilities for the benefit of the local populations. The PDRSO and the PGRN, through their Local Development component, support the forest towns' efforts to develop and implement their local development plan.
Log transport documents are to be completed before leaving the harvesting sites and are kept for the duration of the transport.
Any company exporting timber must obtain a valid certificate of origin from the Forestry Directorate before it exports timber products. Currently, only companies that have aPEApermit are allowed to export, which means that all companies work within an almost complete chain of custody, from the tree in the annual harvest block to the port of Douala.
National log production must first and foremost be able to satisfy the demand of local processing units. The local processing rate of the net production of first category species (defined in the PEA development plan) is 70%,with the exception ofthe secondary species to be promoted. All companies have been given three years to comply with this provision.
The below listed key documents are based on the applicable legislation and are considered to play a key role in demonstrating legal origin.
Processing and Trade
Bans and quota
There are no specific bans or limitations on the export of timber from the Central African Republic.
However, forest concessionaires must process 70% of the logs they harvest within a local processing unit (sawmill, peeling unit, etc.), for the main species that are harvested (so-called 1st category species).
Cites and protected species
There are two tree species from the Central African Republic listed on CITES Appendix II:
- Afrormosia (Pericopsiselata). This CITES listing applies to logs, sawn wood and veneer sheets.
- 3 Guibourtia recently added to list 2 of the CITES (proven presence of G. demeusei at the very least)
National action on timber legality
The Central African Republic and the EU entered into negotiations for a voluntary partnership agreement in October 2009. The Agreement was signed in November 2011, and ratified in July 2012. The Central African Republic is developing a legality assurance system to control, verify and license legal timber. This will be used for timber and timber products exported to the EU and to other destinations worldwide, as well as within the domestic market (EFI). The backbone of the LAS architecture is the Central Inspectorate of Water and Forests (ICEF).
The 2013-2015 crisis had slowed progress in the implementation of the FLEGT VPA. Since 2016, the CAR has been benefiting from a FOA-EU-FLEGT project to support the implementation of the FLEGT Action Plan. Useful information regarding the implementation of the VPA in CAR is available online: here.
Third party certification
The Central African Republic currently has no certified forests. There has been a OLB certificate in the country covering 195 500 hectares, but this certificate has been terminated.
Sources of information
- APV FLEGT RCA site internet
- Transparency international
- CITES database
- Forest Legality Alliance country profile - Central African Republic.
- Central African Republic – EU (2011) Voluntary Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the Central African Republic on forest law enforcement, governance and trade in timber and derived products to the European Union (FLEGT)
- GFTN (2009) Framework for Assessing Legality of Forestry Operations, Timber Processing and Trade Annex- Central African Republic
- Code Forestier RCA
Source: Transparancy International