Corruption Perception Index38
A country's score indicates the perceived level of public sector corruption on a scale of 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean).
Source: Transparency International
Brazil has a ban on log exports (since 1996) and focus on exports of secondary processed wood. (source: TFT). Export of logs from plantations is permitted (Art. 6 Normative Instruction N° 15 of 2011). Regulations for plantations vary from state to state. Some states require licenses for timber and timber products from plantations but most of them don’t.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement among governments that aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
The following tree species are found in natural forest in Brazil and covered by CITES (Appendix I, II or III):
IBAMA is the only scientific and administrative authority in Brazil able to grant CITES licenses.
The import / export of CITES species in Brazil can only be performed in a limited number of ports:
Some natural forest tree species are protected and have restrictions and even prohibitions for commercialization (export / domestic market) by Brazilian law, and some of these species are also CITES-listed as above (FLA):
In Brazil, production of timber is controlled by two official timber control systems. The main system, developed by the Federal Government, is the Document of Forest of Origin (Documento de Origem Floresta – DOF), introduced by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment in 2007 and adopted by most states in the country. Two states (Pará and Mato Grosso), however, developed and operate their own systems, Sisflora (Sistema de Comercialização de Transporte de Produtos Florestais). In general, the two systems are similar to each other and cover all activities related to the extraction (logging), transportation, processing, and commercialisation of timber products. The main focus of these systems is to ensure that every activity is documented, to enable wood products to be traced through the chain and forest management regulations to be enforced.
Brazil does not have, and is not negotiating, a VPA with the EU.