Corruption Perception Index
A country's score indicates the perceived level of public sector corruption on a scale of 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean).
Source: Transparency International
Bans & quota
Brazil has a ban on log exports (since 1996) and focus on exports of secondary processed wood. (source: TFT). Export of logs from plantations is permitted (Art. 6 Normative Instruction N° 15 of 2011). Regulations for plantations vary from state to state. Some states require licenses for timber and timber products from plantations but most of them don’t.
CITES and protected species
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement among governments that aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
The following tree species are found in natural forest in Brazil and covered by CITES (Appendix I, II or III):
- Jacarandá / Brazilian Rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) - Appendix I
- Pau Rosa / Brazilian Pinkheart (Aniba roseodora) - Appendix II
- Palo Santo / Verawood (Bulnesia sarmientoi) - Appendix II
- Pau Brasil / Brazilwood (Paubrasilia echinata) - Appendix II
- Mogno Brasileiro / Brazilian Mahogany; also called "Caoba" or "Acajou" (Swietenia macrophylla) - Appendix II
- Cedro / Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata) - Appendix III
- Cedro Rosa / Cedro Colorado (Cedrela fisillis) - Appendix III
- Cedrilho / Cedro Del Cerro (Cedrela lilloi) - Appendix III
IBAMA is the only scientific and administrative authority in Brazil able to grant CITES licenses.
The import / export of CITES species in Brazil can only be performed in a limited number of ports:
- North region: Belém Port (PA)
- South region: Paranaguá (PR), Itajaí (SC) and Uruguaiana (RS) Ports
- Southeast region: Santos (SP) and Vitória (ES) Ports
Some natural forest tree species are protected and have restrictions and even prohibitions for commercialization (export / domestic market) by Brazilian law, and some of these species are also CITES-listed as above (FLA):
- Castanha do Pará / Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa)
- Araucária / Brazilian Pine (Araucaria angustifolia)
- Pau Brasil / Brazilwood (Paubrasilia echinata)
- Jacarandá / Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra)
National action on timber legality
In Brazil, production of timber is controlled by two official timber control systems. The main system, developed by the Federal Government, is the Document of Forest of Origin (Documento de Origem Floresta – DOF), introduced by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment in 2007 and adopted by most states in the country. Two states (Pará and Mato Grosso), however, developed and operate their own systems, Sisflora (Sistema de Comercialização de Transporte de Produtos Florestais). In general, the two systems are similar to each other and cover all activities related to the extraction (logging), transportation, processing, and commercialisation of timber products. The main focus of these systems is to ensure that every activity is documented, to enable wood products to be traced through the chain and forest management regulations to be enforced.
Brazil does not have, and is not negotiating, a VPA with the EU.
Third party certification
There is an approved national FSC standard for Brazil’s Natural Forest and one for Plantation Forests. Furthermore there is a so called SLIMF-standard, which shall be used in FSC timber & non-timber forest management certification audits, for traditional communities, indigenous peoples and small-scale producers in Brazil. 6.7 million hectares of the Brazilian forests are covered with a FSC FM certificate (FSC, August 2018).
- PEFC: Brazilian Forest Certification Programme (CERFLOR)
The CERFLOR certificate is a Brazilian forest certification initiative, whose standards were prepared by ABNT (Brazilian Technical Standards Association). The CERFLOR system includes forest management standards for native forests as well as for plantations. The system is endorsed by PEFC. As of June 2015, there are more than 3.8 million hectares of forests certified (PEFC, June 2018). The majority of CERFLOR-certified companies also has a FSC certificate.